By Elizabeth Riddell-Dixon
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Extra info for Canada and the International Seabed: Domestic Determinants and External Constraints
In the case of the former, world nickel markets were depressed during most of the Conference, especially in the mid- and late 1970s. This low demand affected both land-based producers and the prospects for potential miners of the international seabed area. Forecasts for the 1980s, however, offered hope of improvement in the nickel market. 18 While Canada could do little to affect the rate of growth in world demand for nickel, it could work to improve its ability to compete with other sources of supply.
It therefore remained critical of moves by the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany and the United Kingdom to enact unilateral legislation to permit deep seabed mining by their nationals. Canada did support, however, the ongoing development of marine technology pertaining to the Area. In sum, Canada abstained on the General Assembly's moratorium on the grounds that it would have placed unnecessary limitations on the development of scientific and technological expertise, which would, in turn, further delay the commencement of seabed mining.
In addition to securing a universally acceptable treaty and an effective production ceiling, the key seabed mining issues for Canada were the following: membership and decisionmaking procedures of the Council of the ISA; financing of the ISA; finan- 38 Canada and the International Seabed cial terms of contracts to mine the deep seabed; status of the Enterprise and arrangements to ensure the financial terms of its contracts to mine the deep seabed; status of the Enterprise and arrangements to ensure its financial and technological viability; provisions for the review conference and for preliminary investment protection; and rules to ensure fair economic practices in all stages of the development and marketing of deep seabed resources.