By Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Pompe, Prof. Dr. Gerhard Rödel, Dr. Hans‐Jürgen Weiss, Prof. Dr. Michael Mertig(auth.)
Written through authors from varied fields to mirror the interdisciplinary nature of the subject, this publication publications the reader via new nano-materials processing encouraged by way of nature.
dependent round normal rules, every one choice and rationalization is influenced via specific organic case stories. this offers the historical past for elucidating the actual precept in a moment part. within the 3rd half, examples for employing the main to fabrics processing are given, whereas in a fourth subsection each one bankruptcy is supplemented by way of a range of proper experimental and theoretical suggestions.
digital supplementations for theoretical simulations in addition to extra experimental information can be supplied on-line.
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Extra info for Bio-Nanomaterials: Designing Materials Inspired by Nature
Since the total entropy change is negative, DStot ¼ DSconf þ DSsovlent < 0, there is a transition temperature T m ¼ DHbond =DStot beyond which the free enthalpy change DG becomes positive. Hence, the coiled conﬁguration is the favored equilibrium structure above this critical temperature. The driving force for the formation of the helical structure can be expressed by a parameter a ðDHbond À TDStot Þ=ðÀ2kB TÞ. Positive a means that the formation of the a-helix is thermodynamically favored. Its growth by one unit leads to a decrease of the free enthalpy by DG ¼ À2akB T.
6. In comparison to these values, common polymers such as polyethylene can be described with persistence lengths of less than 1 nm. Therefore, the stiffer biopolymers such as DNA or ﬁbrous proteins of the cytoskeleton are also called semiﬂexible polymers. The high persistence length of these biopolymers is one essential advantage for their application as building blocks for manufacturing microscopic machine systems or as templates for electronic circuitries. The bend persistence length provides also a measure for Young’s modulus E of the polymer chain.
24). Also in this case, weak hydrogen bonds (between the complementary bases) are responsible for the helix stability. The helix is the stable phase at low temperature. When DNA melts, the hydrogen bonds between the bases break. At the same time, the disruption of the base stacks is connected with loss of favorable van der Waals attraction and dipole–dipole interactions. The gain of energy due to reduced Coulomb interaction of the negatively charged backbones is smaller than the energy increase of the above-mentioned interactions.