Ants of North America: A Guide to the Genera by Brian L Fisher;Stefan P Cover

By Brian L Fisher;Stefan P Cover

Ants are one of the so much conspicuous and the main ecologically very important of bugs. This concise, easy-to-use, authoritative id advisor introduces the interesting and various ant fauna of the U.S. and Canada. It gains the 1st illustrated key to North American ant genera, discusses distribution styles, explores ant ecology and ordinary background, and features a record of all at the moment famous ant species during this huge area. * New keys to the seventy three North American ant genera illustrated with 250 line drawings make certain actual identity * a hundred and eighty colour photographs exhibit the top and profile of every genus and demanding species teams * features a word list of significant phrases

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They could thus fold the long hand, almost as living birds do. The longer hand could then be rotated and whipped forward suddenly to snatch prey. In the shoulder girdle of early theropods, the scapula (shoulder blade) was long and straplike; the coracoid (which along with the scapula forms the shoulder joint) was rounded, and two separate, S-shaped clavicles connected the shoulder to the sternum, or breastbone. The scapula soon became longer COPYRIGHT 2003 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. APRIL 2003 and narrower; the coracoid also thinned and elongated, stretching toward the breastbone.

Evidence for the dinosaurian origin of birds is not confined to the skeleton. Recent discoveries of nesting sites in Mongolia and Montana reveal that some reproductive behaviors of birds originated in nonavian dinosaurs. These theropods did not deposit a large clutch of eggs all at once, as most other reptiles do. Instead they filled a nest more gradually, laying one or two eggs at a time, perhaps over several days, as birds do. Recently skeletons of the Cretaceous theropod Oviraptor have been found atop nests of eggs; the dinosaurs were apparently buried while protecting the eggs in very birdlike fashion.

More likely, the ancestors of birds used a combination of taking off from the ground and taking advantage of accessible heights (such as hills, large boulders or fallen trees). They may not have climbed trees, but they could have used every available object in their landscape to assist flight. More central than the question of ground versus trees, however, is the evolution of a flight stroke. This stroke generates not only the lift that gliding animals obtain from moving their wings through the air (as an airfoil) but also the thrust that enables a flapping animal to move forward.

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