By J. Shore
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Extra info for Colorants and Auxiliaries: Organic Chemistry and Application Properties
Copper or zinc compounds) as fungicides or bactericides and these can interfere with enzyme action in subsequent desizing. 0, the effectiveness of each agent being dependent on the type of enzyme and the metal ions present. The use of the phosphonates HEDP or PBTC helps to reduce cellulose damage to a minimum in oxidative desizing with persulphate. pmd 517 15/11/02, 15:44 518 CLASSIFICATION OF DYEING AND PRINTING AUXILIARIES BY FUNCTION of sequestering agents. The phosphonates EDTMP, HEDP and PBTC have been recommended.
For example, a low HLB value (4–6) signifies a predominance of hydrophobic groups, indicating that the surfactant is lipophilic and should be suited for preparing waterin-oil emulsions. A value in the 7–9 range indicates good wetting properties. As the value shifts towards increased hydrophilicity other properties predominate, values of 8–18 being typical for surfactants that will give oil-in-water emulsions, and values of 13–15 for surfactants that show useful detergency. The HLB values required for solubilising properties are generally in the range 10–18.
Phosphonates are useful additions in acidification treatments after alkaline processing to assist in the removal of metal compounds that have limited solubility in alkali. Under the strongly alkaline conditions of mercerising, addition of either gluconate or triethanolamine with a little HEDP is useful. The presence of a polycarboxylate helps to prevent precipitation on machine components. Certain transition-metal salts catalyse redox reactions, leading to uneven treatment and perhaps damage to the substrate.