Biochemistry and Genetics, 2007, p.514 by Golder Wilson

By Golder Wilson

This exceptional try out prep consultant lets you attempt your wisdom of crucial biochemistry and genetics recommendations for the USMLE Step 1; perform with 500 USMLE Step 1-style questions with referenced solutions; overview reasons for correct and incorrect solutions; and construct self belief, talents, and information.

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HORMONES AND INTEGRATED METABOLISM Key concepts:Types of hormones and hormone action (Murray, pp 434-473. ) • Integrated actions of the endocrine and neural systems produce hormones, acting on distant cells (endocrine), adjacent cells (paracine), or the same cell (autocrine) as agonists (stimulants) or antagonists (inhibitors) of various cell functions. TABLE 7. VITAMIN FUNCTIONS, DEFICIENCY DISEASES,AND HIGH-DOSE THERAPIES Vitamin Functions Deficiency Disease High-Dose Therapy A Retinols, β-carotene Retinal pigment, signal transduction, antioxidant D Calciferol Calcium absorption, bone formation E Tocopherols Antioxidant K Phylloquinone Blood clotting and bone formation B1 Thiamin Coenzyme for pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), other enzymes B2 Riboflavin Coenzyme in Redox reactions; precursor to flavoproteins FMN, FAD Coenzyme in Redox reactions as part of NAD(P)/NAD(P)H Niacin Night blindness, dry eyes (xerophthalmia) with corneal ulcers and blindness, hyperkeratosis (scaly skin) Rickets: poor bone mineralization (osteomalacia) and formation (bowed legs) Neurologic symptoms (rare) Normal newborns; bleeding and bone changes (stippled epiphyses, short nose) Beriberi: burning sensory neuropathy, cardiac failure, edema; Wernicke-Korsakoff dementia in alcoholics Photophobia, stomatitis (irritation at corners of mouth, lips, and tongue), anemia Pellagra—photosensitive dermatitis, psychosis Contraindicated—causes increased intracranial pressure Vitamin D-resistant rickets Common in skin care but not proven effective Routine nursery administration, rare inborn errors Leigh’s disease and other mitochondrial disorders with PDH deficiency* Mitochondrial enzyme deficiencies having flavin cofactors* Hartnup disease—defect in tryptophan transport (Continued) 45 46 TABLE 7.

Bioenergetics is the study of energy changes that accompany metabolism; biological systems use chemical energy, taking fuel from food. • Food and micronutrient (vitamins, minerals) availability determine the rate of energy release, modulated by thyroid hormones. 26 Biochemistry and Genetics Figure 14 Pathway of glycogenesis and glycogenolysis in the liver. Two high energy phosphates are used in the incorporation of 1 mol of glucose into glycogen. + refers to simulation, - to inhibition. Insulin decreases the level of cAMP only after it has been raised by glucagons or epinephrine—that is, it antagonizes their action.

The reciprocal of velocity 1/V is plotted on the y axis against the reciprocal of substrate concentration 1/S on the x axis. Direct graphic determination of Vmax is made by measuring the y intercept (= 1/Vmax when 1/S = 0). Direct graphic measurement of the Km is made by measuring the x intercept (= ~1/Km when 1/V = 0). The slope is Km/Vmax. • The reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot constructed by measuring enzyme velocities with and without inhibitor distinguishes competitive inhibition from noncompetitive inhibition (Fig.

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