By Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe
An outline of clash and intervention within the 3 African states of Nigeria, Angola and Zaire. themes lined comprise the self-determination, territorial integrity and the inviolability of post-colonial borders. The impression of nations comparable to the united states, USSR and Cuba also are tested.
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Extra info for Conflict and Intervention in Africa: Nigeria, Angola, Zaïre
Britain, as the ex-colonial power, was very cautious to avoid identifying too closely with either of the conflicting parties, so as not to prejudice an African mediation. Support for the Federal Government On 25 July 1967 the military situation changed dramatically. A federal naval task force stormed and captured the Bonny oil terminal. Port Harcourt, just 40 miles north of the creeks, was now under threat from a possible federal amphibian attack. Thus, the federal government was in control of Biafra's major petroleum outlet, and this also meant that it was in a strong position to bargain with both Shell-BP and the British government over the entire question of oil deliveries.
In August 1968, several Pan hard armoured cars (with 90 mm guns and 60 mm anti-tank cannon) were delivered to the federal army. 88 Earlier on in the year, federal military technicians visited France to take 'specialised 46 Conflict and Interoention in Africa courses on the handling and maintenance of advanced French weaponry. The federals also brought French arms through private interest groups in France which had business interests in Nigeria. Altogether, the French military supplies to Biafra, which amounted to $5 million, was small when compared to the enormous sums of money that the Nigerian government derived from the sale of its export products to France, which went on without interruption throughout the war.
In the first quarter of 1967, British oil imports from Nigeria accounted for 10 per cent of British needs (or about one-third of total Nigerian petroleum export) and this was a source that would easily offset the losses being incurred from the Middle East. The beginning of the Nigerian military offensive on Biafra on 6 July 1967, with grave threats to the oil installations, most of which were located in Biafra, was therefore viewed with great apprehension in London. At this time, Shell-BP, in which the British government held a 49 per cent share, was Nigeria's largest oil-producing company.